每天读报(三十六)
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1已有 302 次阅读  2014-02-22 06:10


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Two rival claimants to the throne had sufficient local power to thwart Cao Cao's and Cao Pei's efforts to build a government on the  scale of the Han. In the central and lower Yangzi valley and further south, the brothers Sun Ce and Sun Quan established the state of Wu, supported by the great families that had settled in this frontier region, which was still heavily populated by indigenous peoples. West in Sichuan a distant member of Han imperial family, Liu Pei, established a stronghold, aided by the brilliant strategist, Zhuge Liang. Because Wei had more than twice the population of either the other states as well as the largest army, it is not surprising that it eventually prevailed, defeated the Han state in Sichuan in 263. Two years later, however, the son of the victorious general forced the Wei emperor to abdicate in his favor, founding the Jin dynasty (later called Western Jin, 265-316). In 280, after a major naval campaign, the southern state of Wu was defeated. The Jin dynasty had thus succeeded in reunifying China, and for a brief interlude it seemed possible that the glories of the Han dynasty could be reattained.

During this century of military struggles, and atmosphere of alienation and personal indulgence pervaded elite circles. Confucian ideals of public service lost much of their hold, as the educated and well-off vied instead in extravagant and often unconventional living."Study of mysterious" captured the interests of the philosophically inclined. Books like the book of changes, the Laozi, and the Zhuangzi were reinterpreted, arguments swirling over metaphysical questions such as the meaning of "nonbeing" and its relationship to "being". Clever repartee, called "pure talk", was much in style, especially pithy characterizations of prominent personalities. Rather than participate in the often vicious clique struggles at court, many men expressed an abhorrence of political life with its elaborate conventions. A search for naturalness and spontaneity led to a burst of self-expression in the arts, especially poetry. Cao Cao, his successor Cao Pei, and Pei's younger brother Cao Zhi were all remarkable poets, important for developing the lyric potential of verse in lines of five syllables. Among the sophisticated aesthetes of this period were a group of gifted poets later immortalized as the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove. One of them, Ruan Ji, shocked his contemporaries by wailing in grief when an unmarried neighbor girl died, but eating meat and drinking wine on the day of his mother's funeral. He summed up his attitude when someone rebuked him for talking to his sisters-lin-law: "Surely you do not mean to suggest that the rules of propriety apply to me?" Such behavior outraged conservative Confucians and autocratic rulers, and in 262 one of the Seven Sages, Xi Kang, was executed for perversion of public morals.

 
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  • fyscu 2014-02-22 09:03
    嗯,看懂了,主要讲了三国到西晋的历史,文学,以及道德观和价值观
  • kid浮躁 2014-02-22 22:19
    fyscu: 嗯,看懂了,主要讲了三国到西晋的历史,文学,以及道德观和价值观
    我是背逼疯了。
    单词记不住,只能抄书了。




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