每天读报(三十七)
分享到:
已有 187 次阅读  2014-02-22 21:38


分享 举报
Although it had unified China, the Western Jin never succeeded in establishing an autocratic imperial institution, that is, one capable of preserving ultimate power for the emperor and preventing dissension and power struggles. The imperial family's power was threatened by the families of empresses, especially the Jia family, who were suspected of arranging the assassination of the previous empress and her family as well as more than one heir to the throne. Nor was it possible for the emperors fully to control the civil service. The system of recruitment to government posts that had been instituted by the Wei - the 'nine rank system'- had degenerated from a system of local assessment of character to the standing of candidate's family. The Jin dynasty allowed further erosion of land to imperial princes. Gaining such resources spurred the princes' fratricidal instincts and culminated in a series of bloody struggles over succession. Each prince sought out allies, including generals and non-Chinese chieftains with troops, and full scale civil war raged in and near the capital between 291 and 305.

The northern and southern dynasties

The dissolution of the Jin internecine war invited non-Chinese chiefs to stage a rebellion. During the second and third centuries, hundreds of thousands of Xiongnu and other northern peoples had been settled within China's political frontiers as an alternative to defending against their raids. Often recruited as soldiers or used as auxiliary troops, these formerly nomadic peoples, now generally settled pastoralists, were not easy to govern or assimilate. In 304 the sinified Xiongnu chief Liu Yuan declared himself king of Han. His son went on to sack the Jin capital at Luoyang in 311, sending it inhabitants fleeing in terror. Another Xiongnu leader assaulted Chang'an in 316, and less sinified chiefs, such as Shi Le and Fu Jian, soon jioned the fray. For a period of over a century (known as the 'Sixteen Kingdoms',304-439), north China was a battleground and Chinese civilization seemed seriously threatened.
声明: 本文及其评论仅代表个人观点,不代表飞赞网立场。不当言论请举报