每天读报(四十)
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2已有 572 次阅读  2014-02-27 04:12


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A few year later, Emperor Xiaowen (r.471-99) decided to transform his state into a true Chinese dynasty on the model of Han and Jin. In the 490s he moved the capital more than 300 miles south to the ruins of Luoyang and built a splendid new city there; he gave Chinese surnames to the Xianbei, taking the name Yuan (origin) for the imperial house; he ordered the use of Chinese language and Chinese dress at court, even by Xianbei; and he encouraged intermarriage between the Xianbei and Chinese elites. Within twenty-five years Luoyang had become a magnificent city with half a million people, vast palaces, elegent mansions, and over a thousand Buddhist monasteries. Many members of the Xianbei nobility became fully versed in Chinese cultural traditions, at home among the leading Chinese families.

The stability of this Luoyang-centred sion-foreign hybrid regime was brief. The Xianbei soldiers assigned to the northern frontier garrisons to fend off incursions by new occupants of the steppe such as the Ruanruan and Turks came to hate the sinified Xianbei aristocrats leading what seemed to them self-indulgent lives in the thoroughly Chinese atmosphere of Luoyang and in 524 they rebelled. Civil war ensued as those sent to suppress the rebels took to fighting each other. When Luoyang was sacked, some 2000 officials were slaughtered.

After a decade of constant warfare, two principal rivals emerged, each controlling a claimant to the Wei throne. In 522 the fiction of Wei ruler was abandoned in the east, and the (Northern) Qi dynasty (552-77) was established; in 557 the western powers followed suit and declared the (Northern) Zhou dynasty (577-81). Both courts suffered from ethnic tension between the sinified Xianbei, Chinese aristocrats, and unsinified warriors. In the northwestern court, not only was the law requiring Xianbei to take Chinese names rescinded, but Chinese officials were give Xianbei names. In 553 the northwestern court conquered Sichuan, until then held by the south. In 575 the Zhou court, through clever diplomacy, got the southern court of Chen to join in invading Qi. Qi was destroyed in 557, most of its territory going to Zhou, thus reunifying the north. The zhou throne was in its turn usurped in 581 by one of its generals who declared the Sui dynasty. Before long the destroyed Chen to unify all of China proper.
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